Periodontics is the study and treatment of structures and supporting tissues surrounding the teeth. The gums and underlying bone are home to many alterations. The inlaid stones on the teeth, which are formed above and below the gum, act as an irritant to the underlying tissues. The accumulation of food in the neck of the tooth and irregularities of the type of cavities, malocclusion, or poorly constructed dental devices also act as irritants. In addition, the imbalance of the tooth-cusp relationship can introduce particles of food gums. When soft tissue such as gums, are subject to irritants, swollen and eventually can destroy adjacent bone. For this reason the tooth finally loosens due to loss of bone around its root. Inflammation of the gingiva called gingivitis, and infections destroying the gum tissue and bone are called periodontitis. Although gum disease are the most important cause of tooth loss after age 21, these situations also occur in children. Another common disorder of the gingiva necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is generally known as gingivitis or Vincent's infection. When left untreated, it destroys the interdental papillae (small bumps) and produces tooth loss. This process is often associated with disseminated infection. Other common diseases of the oral cavity are candidiasis and viral infections.
Periodontal treatment includes the elimination of calculations and application of medications on soft tissues. Loosened teeth should be splinted to sustain them during the healing process, the gum tissue is removed infected or necrotic, and malocclusions are corrected by grinding the teeth for effective occlusion relationships.
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